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GcMAF research papers

As of February 2013, on the American National Library of Medicine alone, 142 eminent scientists from 8 nations have published 59 major GcMAF research papers, which can be viewed on the US Government’s Pubmed system.

Ours is the only publicly available GcMAF that is used in these research papers. There are many papers published elsewhere, including:

Dr Bradstreet has added to his 30 papers with another on autism, with nagalase and improvements with GcMAF:
“Initial Observations of Elevated Alpha-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase Activity Associated with Autism and Observed Reductions from GC Protein—Macrophage Activating Factor Injections”
By Dr James Jeffrey Bradstreet, Emar Vogelaar and Lynda Thyer.  Libertas Academia 10th December 2012

At Immuno Biotech Ltd we have written 12 research abstracts on GcMAF in the first 5 months of 2013. Two published, all peer reviewed and accepted for publication.

Here is the list on the US Library of Medicine,    searching on:

GcMAF OR “vitamin D binding protein” AND “macrophage activating factor”

1: Toyohara Y, Hashitani S, Kishimoto H, Noguchi K, Yamamoto N, Urade M.
Inhibitory effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating
factor on DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis and its derived
carcinoma cell line. Oncol Lett. 2011 Jul;2(4):685-691. Epub 2011 May 13. PubMed
PMID: 22848250; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3406437.

2: Bellone M, Rigamonti N. Vitamin D-binding protein-derived
macrophage-activating factor, GcMAF, and prostate cancer. Cancer Immunol
Immunother. 2012 Dec;61(12):2377-8. doi: 10.1007/s00262-012-1310-9. Epub 2012 Jun
28. PubMed PMID: 22740161.

3: Uto Y, Yamamoto S, Mukai H, Ishiyama N, Takeuchi R, Nakagawa Y, Hirota K,
Terada H, Onizuka S, Hori H. ?-Galactosidase treatment is a common first-stage
modification of the three major subtypes of Gc protein to GcMAF. Anticancer Res.
2012 Jun;32(6):2359-64. PubMed PMID: 22641675.

4: Pacini S, Punzi T, Morucci G, Gulisano M, Ruggiero M. Effects of vitamin
D-binding protein-derived macrophage-activating factor on human breast cancer
cells. Anticancer Res. 2012 Jan;32(1):45-52. PubMed PMID: 22213287.

5: Pacini S, Morucci G, Punzi T, Gulisano M, Ruggiero M, Amato M, Aterini S.
Effect of paricalcitol and GcMAF on angiogenesis and human peripheral blood
mononuclear cell proliferation and signaling. J Nephrol. 2012
Jul-Aug;25(4):577-81. doi: 10.5301/jn.5000035. PubMed PMID: 21956771.

6: Uto Y, Yamamoto S, Takeuchi R, Nakagawa Y, Hirota K, Terada H, Onizuka S,
Nakata E, Hori H. Effect of the Gc-derived macrophage-activating factor precursor
(preGcMAF) on phagocytic activation of mouse peritoneal macrophages. Anticancer
Res. 2011 Jul;31(7):2489-92. PubMed PMID: 21873164.

7: Debruyne E, Speeckaert M, Weygaerde YV, Delanghe J. Phenotype of Gc-globulin
influences the macrophage activating factor (MAF) levels in serum. Clin Chem Lab
Med. 2011 Nov;49(11):1855-60. doi: 10.1515/CCLM.2011.676. Epub 2011 Aug 23.
PubMed PMID: 21859424.

8: Pacini S, Morucci G, Punzi T, Gulisano M, Ruggiero M. Gc protein-derived
macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) stimulates cAMP formation in human
mononuclear cells and inhibits angiogenesis in chick embryo chorionallantoic
membrane assay. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2011 Apr;60(4):479-85. doi:
10.1007/s00262-010-0953-7. Epub 2010 Dec 14. PubMed PMID: 21170647.

9: Faserl K, Golderer G, Kremser L, Lindner H, Sarg B, Wildt L, Seeber B.
Polymorphism in vitamin D-binding protein as a genetic risk factor in the
pathogenesis of endometriosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jan;96(1):E233-41.
doi: 10.1210/jc.2010-1532. Epub 2010 Oct 27. PubMed PMID: 20980430.

10: Gregory KJ, Zhao B, Bielenberg DR, Dridi S, Wu J, Jiang W, Huang B,
Pirie-Shepherd S, Fannon M. Vitamin D binding protein-macrophage activating
factor directly inhibits proliferation, migration, and uPAR expression of
prostate cancer cells. PLoS One. 2010 Oct 18;5(10):e13428. doi:
10.1371/journal.pone.0013428. PubMed PMID: 20976141; PubMed Central PMCID:

11: Nonaka K, Onizuka S, Ishibashi H, Uto Y, Hori H, Nakayama T, Matsuura N,
Kanematsu T, Fujioka H. Vitamin D binding protein-macrophage activating factor
inhibits HCC in SCID mice. J Surg Res. 2012 Jan;172(1):116-22. doi:
10.1016/j.jss.2010.07.057. Epub 2010 Sep 17. PubMed PMID: 20855083.

12: Ravnsborg T, Olsen DT, Thysen AH, Christiansen M, Houen G, Højrup P. The
glycosylation and characterization of the candidate Gc macrophage activating
factor. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010 Apr;1804(4):909-17. doi:
10.1016/j.bbapap.2009.12.022. Epub 2010 Jan 13. PubMed PMID: 20079467.

13: Rehder DS, Nelson RW, Borges CR. Glycosylation status of vitamin D binding
protein in cancer patients. Protein Sci. 2009 Oct;18(10):2036-42. doi:
10.1002/pro.214. PubMed PMID: 19642159; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2786967.

14: Fang Y, van Meurs JB, Arp P, van Leeuwen JP, Hofman A, Pols HA, Uitterlinden
AG. Vitamin D binding protein genotype and osteoporosis. Calcif Tissue Int. 2009
Aug;85(2):85-93. doi: 10.1007/s00223-009-9251-9. Epub 2009 Jun 2. PubMed PMID:
19488670; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2729412.

15: Yamamoto N, Ushijima N, Koga Y. Immunotherapy of HIV-infected patients with
Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF). J Med Virol. 2009
Jan;81(1):16-26. doi: 10.1002/jmv.21376. PubMed PMID: 19031451.

16: Yamamoto N, Suyama H, Yamamoto N. Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer with Gc
Protein-Derived Macrophage-Activating Factor, GcMAF. Transl Oncol. 2008
Jul;1(2):65-72. PubMed PMID: 18633461; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2510818.

17: Spiriti J, Bogani F, van der Vaart A, Ghirlanda G. Modulation of protein
stability by O-glycosylation in a designed Gc-MAF analog. Biophys Chem. 2008
May;134(3):157-67. doi: 10.1016/j.bpc.2008.02.005. Epub 2008 Feb 21. PubMed PMID:

18: Yamamoto N, Suyama H, Nakazato H, Yamamoto N, Koga Y. Immunotherapy of
metastatic colorectal cancer with vitamin D-binding protein-derived
macrophage-activating factor, GcMAF. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2008
Jul;57(7):1007-16. PubMed PMID: 18058096.

19: Yamamoto N, Suyama H, Yamamoto N, Ushijima N. Immunotherapy of metastatic
breast cancer patients with vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage
activating factor (GcMAF). Int J Cancer. 2008 Jan 15;122(2):461-7. PubMed PMID:

20: Meier U, Gressner O, Lammert F, Gressner AM. Gc-globulin: roles in response
to injury. Clin Chem. 2006 Jul;52(7):1247-53. Epub 2006 May 18. Review. PubMed
PMID: 16709624.

21: Kalkunte S, Brard L, Granai CO, Swamy N. Inhibition of angiogenesis by
vitamin D-binding protein: characterization of anti-endothelial activity of
DBP-maf. Angiogenesis. 2005;8(4):349-60. Epub 2006 Jan 7. PubMed PMID: 16400520.

22: Yamamoto N, Urade M. Pathogenic significance of
alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity found in the hemagglutinin of influenza
virus. Microbes Infect. 2005 Apr;7(4):674-81. Epub 2005 Mar 22. PubMed PMID:

23: Nagasawa H, Sasaki H, Uto Y, Kubo S, Hori H. Association of the macrophage
activating factor (MAF) precursor activity with polymorphism in vitamin D-binding
protein. Anticancer Res. 2004 Sep-Oct;24(5C):3361-6. PubMed PMID: 15515432.

24: Onizuka S, Kawakami S, Taniguchi K, Fujioka H, Miyashita K. Pancreatic
carcinogenesis: apoptosis and angiogenesis. Pancreas. 2004 Apr;28(3):317-9.
PubMed PMID: 15084979.

25: Matsuura T, Uematsu T, Yamaoka M, Furusawa K. Effect of salivary gland
adenocarcinoma cell-derived alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase on the bioactivity of
macrophage activating factor. Int J Oncol. 2004 Mar;24(3):521-8. PubMed PMID:

26: Schneider GB, Grecco KJ, Safadi FF, Popoff SN. The anabolic effects of
vitamin D-binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-MAF) and a novel
small peptide on bone. Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr. 2003;13(2-4):277-84. PubMed
PMID: 14696974.

27: Mohamad SB, Nagasawa H, Sasaki H, Uto Y, Nakagawa Y, Kawashima K, Hori H. Gc
protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF): isoelectric focusing
pattern and tumoricidal activity. Anticancer Res. 2003 Nov-Dec;23(6a):4451-7.
PubMed PMID: 14666733.

28: Gumireddy K, Reddy CD, Swamy N. Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway
mediates DBP-maf-induced apoptosis in RAW 264.7 macrophages. J Cell Biochem. 2003
Sep 1;90(1):87-96. PubMed PMID: 12938159.

29: Kisker O, Onizuka S, Becker CM, Fannon M, Flynn E, D’Amato R, Zetter B,
Folkman J, Ray R, Swamy N, Pirie-Shepherd S. Vitamin D binding protein-macrophage
activating factor (DBP-maf) inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in mice.
Neoplasia. 2003 Jan-Feb;5(1):32-40. PubMed PMID: 12659668; PubMed Central PMCID:

30: Mohamad SB, Nagasawa H, Uto Y, Hori H. Preparation of Gc protein-derived
macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) and its structural characterization and
biological activities. Anticancer Res. 2002 Nov-Dec;22(6C):4297-300. PubMed PMID:

31: Kanda S, Mochizuki Y, Miyata Y, Kanetake H, Yamamoto N. Effects of vitamin
D(3)-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) on
angiogenesis. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002 Sep 4;94(17):1311-9. PubMed PMID:

32: Swamy N, Ghosh S, Schneider GB, Ray R. Baculovirus-expressed vitamin
D-binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-maf) activates osteoclasts
and binding of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) does not influence this activity. J Cell
Biochem. 2001;81(3):535-46. PubMed PMID: 11255236.

33: Kanan RM, Cook DB, Datta HK. Lectin immunoassay for macrophage-activating
factor (Gc-MAF) produced by deglycosylation of Gc-globulin: evidence for
noninducible generation of Gc-MAF. Clin Chem. 2000 Mar;46(3):412-4. PubMed PMID:

34: Odgren PR, Popoff SN, Safadi FF, MacKay CA, Mason-Savas A, Seifert MF, Marks
SC Jr. The toothless osteopetrotic rat has a normal vitamin D-binding
protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-MAF) cascade and chondrodysplasia
resistant to treatments with colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) and/or DBP-MAF.
Bone. 1999 Aug;25(2):175-81. PubMed PMID: 10456382.

35: Koga Y, Naraparaju VR, Yamamoto N. Antitumor effect of vitamin D-binding
protein-derived macrophage activating factor on Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing
mice. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1999 Jan;220(1):20-6. PubMed PMID: 9893164.

36: Adebanjo OA, Moonga BS, Haddad JG, Huang CL, Zaidi M. A possible new role for
vitamin D-binding protein in osteoclast control: inhibition of extracellular Ca2+
sensing at low physiological concentrations. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 Aug
28;249(3):668-71. PubMed PMID: 9731194.

37: Yamamoto N, Naraparaju VR. Structurally well-defined macrophage activating
factor derived from vitamin D3-binding protein has a potent adjuvant activity for
immunization. Immunol Cell Biol. 1998 Jun;76(3):237-44. PubMed PMID: 9682967.

38: Yamamoto N, Naraparaju VR. Immunotherapy of BALB/c mice bearing Ehrlich
ascites tumor with vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating
factor. Cancer Res. 1997 Jun 1;57(11):2187-92. PubMed PMID: 9187119.

39: Yamamoto N, Naraparaju VR, Moore M, Brent LH. Deglycosylation of serum
vitamin D3-binding protein by alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase detected in the
plasma of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Immunol Immunopathol.
1997 Mar;82(3):290-8. PubMed PMID: 9073553.

40: Yamamoto N, Naraparaju VR, Urade M. Prognostic utility of serum
alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase and immunosuppression resulted from
deglycosylation of serum Gc protein in oral cancer patients. Cancer Res. 1997 Jan
15;57(2):295-9. PubMed PMID: 9000571.

41: Korbelik M, Naraparaju VR, Yamamoto N. Macrophage-directed immunotherapy as
adjuvant to photodynamic therapy of cancer. Br J Cancer. 1997;75(2):202-7. PubMed
PMID: 9010027; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2063270.

42: Benis KA, Schneider GB. The effects of vitamin D binding protein-macrophage
activating factor and colony-stimulating factor-1 on hematopoietic cells in
normal and osteopetrotic rats. Blood. 1996 Oct 15;88(8):2898-905. PubMed PMID:

43: Yamamoto N. Structural definition of a potent macrophage activating factor
derived from vitamin D3-binding protein with adjuvant activity for antibody
production. Mol Immunol. 1996 Oct;33(15):1157-64. PubMed PMID: 9070663.

44: Yamamoto N, Naraparaju VR. Role of vitamin D3-binding protein in activation
of mouse macrophages. J Immunol. 1996 Aug 15;157(4):1744-9. PubMed PMID: 8759764.

45: Yamamoto N, Naraparaju VR, Orchard PJ. Defective lymphocyte glycosidases in
the macrophage activation cascade of juvenile osteopetrosis. Blood. 1996 Aug
15;88(4):1473-8. PubMed PMID: 8695868.

46: Yamamoto N, Naraparaju VR. A defect in inducible beta-galactosidase of B
lymphocytes in the osteopetrotic (mi/mi) mouse. Immunology. 1996
Aug;88(4):604-10. PubMed PMID: 8881764; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1456628.

47: Yamamoto N, Naraparaju VR, Asbell SO. Deglycosylation of serum vitamin
D3-binding protein leads to immunosuppression in cancer patients. Cancer Res.
1996 Jun 15;56(12):2827-31. PubMed PMID: 8665521.

48: Yamamoto N, Naraparaju VR. Vitamin D3-binding protein as a precursor for
macrophage activating factor in the inflammation-primed macrophage activation
cascade in rats. Cell Immunol. 1996 Jun 15;170(2):161-7. PubMed PMID: 8660814.

49: Yamamoto N, Naraparaju VR. A defect in beta-galactosidase of B lymphocytes in
the osteopetrotic (op/op) mouse. Immunol Lett. 1996 Apr;50(1-2):35-40. PubMed
PMID: 8793557.

50: Yamamoto N, Naraparaju VR, Srinivasula SM. Structural modification of serum
vitamin D3-binding protein and immunosuppression in AIDS patients. AIDS Res Hum
Retroviruses. 1995 Nov;11(11):1373-8. PubMed PMID: 8573395.

51: Schneider GB, Benis KA, Flay NW, Ireland RA, Popoff SN. Effects of vitamin D
binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-MAF) infusion on bone
resorption in two osteopetrotic mutations. Bone. 1995 Jun;16(6):657-62. PubMed
PMID: 7669443.

52: Naraparaju VR, Yamamoto N. Roles of beta-galactosidase of B lymphocytes and
sialidase of T lymphocytes in inflammation-primed activation of macrophages.
Immunol Lett. 1994 Dec;43(3):143-8. PubMed PMID: 7721326.

53: Yamamoto N, Willett NP, Lindsay DD. Participation of serum proteins in the
inflammation-primed activation of macrophages. Inflammation. 1994
Jun;18(3):311-22. PubMed PMID: 8088927.

54: Yamamoto N, Lindsay DD, Naraparaju VR, Ireland RA, Popoff SN. A defect in the
inflammation-primed macrophage-activation cascade in osteopetrotic rats. J
Immunol. 1994 May 15;152(10):5100-7. PubMed PMID: 8176226.

55: Yamamoto N, Kumashiro R. Conversion of vitamin D3 binding protein
(group-specific component) to a macrophage activating factor by the stepwise
action of beta-galactosidase of B cells and sialidase of T cells. J Immunol. 1993
Sep 1;151(5):2794-802. PubMed PMID: 8360493.

56: Homma S, Yamamoto M, Yamamoto N. Vitamin D-binding protein (group-specific
component) is the sole serum protein required for macrophage activation after
treatment of peritoneal cells with lysophosphatidylcholine. Immunol Cell Biol.
1993 Aug;71 ( Pt 4):249-57. PubMed PMID: 8225394.

57: Yamamoto N, Homma S, Haddad JG, Kowalski MA. Vitamin D3 binding protein
required for in vitro activation of macrophages after alkylglycerol treatment of
mouse peritoneal cells. Immunology. 1991 Nov;74(3):420-4. PubMed PMID: 1769691;
PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1384634.

58: Yamamoto N, Homma S. Vitamin D3 binding protein (group-specific component) is
a precursor for the macrophage-activating signal factor from
lysophosphatidylcholine-treated lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Oct
1;88(19):8539-43. PubMed PMID: 1924312; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC52544.

59: Yamamoto N, Homma S, Millman I. Identification of the serum factor required
for in vitro activation of macrophages. Role of vitamin D3-binding protein (group
specific component, Gc) in lysophospholipid activation of mouse peritoneal
macrophages. J Immunol. 1991 Jul 1;147(1):273-80. PubMed PMID: 2051023.

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